1. (Ufms 2020) On Earth, something is always burning. Wildfires are started by lightning or accidentally by people, and people use controlled fires to manage farmland and pasture and clear natural vegetation for farmland. Fires can generate large amounts of smoke pollution, release greenhouse gases, and unintentionally degrade ecosystems. But fires can also clear away dead and dying underbrush, which can help restore an ecosystem to good health. In many ecosystems, including boreal forests and grasslands, plants have coevolved with fire and require periodic burning to reproduce.

Some of the global patterns that appear in the fire maps over time are the result of natural cycles of rainfall, dryness, and lightning. For example, naturally occurring fires are common in the boreal forests of Canada in the summer. In other parts of the world, the patterns are the result of human activity. For example, the intense burning in the heart of South America from August-October is a result of human-triggered fires, both intentional and accidental, in the Amazon Rainforest and the Cerrado (a grassland/savanna ecosystem) to the south. Across Africa, a band of widespread agricultural burning sweeps north to south over the continent as the dry season progresses each year. Agricultural burning occurs in late winter and early spring each year across Southeast Asia

(Fonte: Adaptado. Disponível em: <https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/globalmaps/MOD14A1_M_FIRE>. Acesso em: 14 nov. 2019).

Considering the sentence:

“On Earth, something is always burning. Wildfires are started by lightning or accidentally by people, and people use controlled fires to manage farmland and pasture and clear natural vegetation for farmland. Fires can generate large amounts of smoke pollution, release greenhouse gases, and unintentionally degrade ecosystems. But fires can also clear away dead and dying underbrush, which can help restore an ecosystem to good health,” from the text, choose the correct alternative.

The underlined words are …, respectively,

a) a preposition and an interjection.   

b) an adverb and a conjunction.   

c) a conjunction and a preposition.   

d) a verb and a noun.   

e) a conjunction and an adjective.   

2. (Eear 2019) It was a beautiful summer afternoon with the sun shining brightly. I excitedly phoned my friends asking them to come over later for a barbecue.

After making the calls I quickly drove into town to buy some food and drink. __________ I arrived at the shops I was very surprised at __________ busy it was. Everyone must have been shopping for a barbecue!

The first butchers I visited had completely run out of sausages. The next shop had some left so I happily bought some. After visiting a few more shops I had finally finished my shopping. But I was starting to worry as it was 6 p.m. and I had invited my friends to visit at 6:30 p.m.

I hastly rushed to the car park with all of my shopping and threw it in the boot. Suddenly I notice that the cars were moving really slowly out of the car park and there was a bit of traffic jam. It was past 6:30 p.m. __________ I arrived home and I was extremely worried. As a drove into my drive I smiled happily when I saw my friends sitting in my front garden. Luckily they had realized I was stuck at the shops and they waited for me.

Fonte: www.bbc.co.uk/skillswise

The four words in bold, in the text, are:

a) Nouns   

b) Adverbs   

c) Pronouns   

d) Adjectives   

3. (Efomm 2018) Mark the correct alternative.

a) You have made me be a happy man.   

b) I don’t know enough of French to read this.   

c) I got a grandmother last month.   

d) She spoke very fast that nobody could understand.    

e) He’s from Austin, as you can tell from this accent.    

4. (G1 - epcar (Cpcar) 2018) SOME OF THE INTERNET'S CRAZIEST CONSPIRACY THEORIES

Michael Jackson Is Still Alive

1The advent of the internet hasn't just 2cooked up new conspiracy theories, it's also accelerated existing ones. If you refuse to believe that it was the Iranians that killed him, perhaps you'll be convinced that MJ is actually still alive. Proof? 3His own daughter Paris Jackson took a photo of him. Seriously. What do you mean you don't see him? 4He's right there in the back seat, 5stacked under that pile of clothes wearing his iconic hat. Believe, man. Thriller Vol.2 to drop next year.

The Moon Doesn't Exist

It's no good looking at it, night after night. The moon doesn't exist. It's a hologram, put there by persons unknown. Of course, serial conspiracy theorist David Icke has a theory. There are also countless YouTubers keeping an eye out, one of whom has gone as far as "looking at it regularly for a year".

Jay Z Is A Time-Travelling Vampire

There are vast regions of the internet devoted to explaining why Jay Z is part of the Illuminati. 6Hence when this photo, which was taken in New York in 1939, appeared last year, he was accused of being a time-traveller. And a vampire. This video lists other old-time celebrity 7lookalikes, as well as suggesting that 8Hollywood stars don't age because they're the immortal bloodsucking undead. Not because they're 9stuffed with botox, then?

The Earth Is Hollow

10Don't give up, readers. We're halfway through this list. We can make it to the end. 11Dig deep. Well, not 12too deep. You see, the Earth is 13hollow and accessible via portals at the north and south poles. Luckily though, it's quite habitable down there, providing excellent living 14quarters for the lost Viking colonies of Greenland and the Nazis, while "aliens" are in fact just visitors from the subterranean areas.

Siri Can Predict The Apocalypse

Amazing as it may seem, given that 15it can't do anything else you actually ask it to do, Siri can predict the apocalypse. When asked "What day is 27th July 2014?", Apple's assistant replied, "The opening of the gate of Hades", 16aka The End Of The World. That date has now passed without 17issue. Say what you like about the maligned MS Office paperclip, but at least he didn't 18scaremonger that the end was near.

19We All Live In The Matrix And Billionaires Want To Break Us Out Of It

The New Yorker’s Tad Friend claims that many people in Silicon Valley are obsessed with the idea that we're all living in a Matrix-like simulation, and some are taking that obsession a stage 20further: “Two tech billionaires have gone so far as to secretly engage scientists to work on breaking us out of the simulation.” Here's hoping Mark Zuckerberg is 'The One', yeah?

Hitler Is Still Alive

"21Hitler is still alive" rumours have circulated since the 1970s, fuelled by the fact that his crony Josef Mengele hid in South America. Stories like this one, however, speculate the 125-year-old Hitler has been responsible for various world disasters, including 9/11 and the 2010 Gulf oil spill, which happened on his birthday. Other theories say he died in 1984 in Brazil, aged 94. Or in Argentina, aged 73.

Adapted from http://www.shortlist.com/entertainment/20-of-the-internets-craziestconspiracy-theories/.

Acesso em: 14 de fev 2017.

Glossary:

2. cook up – to invent a story, a plan, etc.

5. stacked – covered with things

6. hence – the reason, the explanation for

7. lookalikes – similar in appearance

9. stuffed – filled with something

11. dig – to make a hole in the ground

13. hollow – a hole or empty space

14. quarter – a place to live

16. aka – abbreviation for also known as

17. issue – problem

18. scaremonger – a person that creates stories that cause public fear

Mark the alternative that CANNOT replace the word “too” (reference 12) in the text.

a) Extremely.    

b) Also.    

c) Very.    

d) So.    

5. (Unesp 2018) Examine a tira para responder à questão a seguir.


No trecho do terceiro quadrinho “We’re not that dumb!”, o termo em destaque pode ser substituído, sem alteração de sentido, por

a) so.   

b) which.   

c) over.   

d) more.   

e) quite.   

6. (Col. naval 2017) Match the questions to the answers.

1. Are you on vacation?

2. Where’s she from?

3. Are you and Ana married?

4. Is Julian Italian?

 

(    ) Yes, we are.

(    ) She’s from Italy.

(    ) No, she isn’t.

(    ) No, I’m not.

Choose the option with the correct order.

a) 3 – 2 – 4 – 1   

b) 1 – 2 – 4 – 3    

c) 3 – 4 – 2 – 1    

d) 1 – 4 – 2 – 3    

e) 1 – 4 – 3 – 2   

7. (Col. naval 2017) Read the sentences below.

I. I work hardly every day.

II. My classmates speak French very well.

III. Ana drives incredibly fast.

IV. Our father is a very carefully driver.

Choose the option according to the correct use of the adverbs and modifiers.

a) Only the sentences I, III and IV are correct.    

b) Only the sentences I and III are correct.    

c) Only the sentences II and III are correct.    

d) Only the sentences II, III and IV are correct.    

e) Only the sentences III and IV are correct.    

8. (Eear 2016) In the sentence “Maria learns fast”, the word “fast”, in bold type, is

a) a noun   

b) an article   

c) an adverb   

d) an adjective   

9. (Udesc 2015) 'Twerking' bounces into Oxford dictionary

            LONDON – Twerking, the rump-busting up-and-down dance move long beloved on America's hip-hop scene, has officially gone mainstream. 5It's got the English dictionary entry to prove it.

            Britain's Oxford Dictionaries said the rapid-fire gyrations employed by U.S. pop starlet Miley Cyrus to bounce her way to the top of the charts had become 3increasingly visible in the past 12 months and would be added to its publications under the entry: "Twerk, verb."

Although Cyrus's eye-popping moves at Monday's MTV Video Music Awards may have been many viewers' first introduction to the practice, Oxford Dictionaries' Katherine Connor Martin said "twerking" was some two decades old.

            "There are many theories about the origin of this word, and since it arose in oral use, we may never know the answer for sure," Martin said. "We think the most likely theory is that it is an alteration of work, because that word has a history of 4being used in similar ways, with dancers being encouraged to 'work it.' The 't' could be a result of blending with another word such as twist or twitch."

            "Twerk" will be added to the dictionary as part of its quarterly update, 1which includes words such as "selfie," the word typically used to describe pouty smartphone self-portraits, "digital detox" for time spent way from Facebook and Twitter, and "Bitcoin," for the nationless electronic currency, 2whose gyrations have also caught the world's eye.

            Oxford Dictionaries is responsible for a range of reference works, including Oxford Dictionaries Online, which focuses on modern usage, and the historically-focused Oxford English Dictionary, which probably won't be adding "twerk" to its venerable pages any time soon.

            The definition: "Twerk, v.: dance to popular music in a sexually 6provocative manner involving thrusting hip movements and a low, squatting stance."

By RAPHAEL SATTER Associated Press (www.mercurynews.com) Accessed on: august 10th, 2014.

“increasingly” (ref. 3), “being” (ref. 4), “It’s got” (ref. 5), “provocative” (ref. 6) are consecutively:

a) adverb, gerund, present perfect, adjective   

b) adverb, present continuous, is, adverb   

c) adjective, present continuous, was, adjective   

d) adverb, gerund, present perfect, verb   

e) adverb, gerund, possessive case, adverb   

10. (Epcar (Afa) 2013) BRAZILIAN AIR FORCE ACADEMY

AFA (Air Force Academy), located at Pirassununga, State of São Paulo, is responsible for the training of Pilots, Administrative and Aeronautics Infantry Officers for the Brazilian Air Force.

The history of the Brazilian military pilots schools goes back to 1913, when the Brazilian Aviation School was founded, at Campo dos Afonsos, State of Rio de Janeiro. Its mission was to provide instruction at similar levels to those of the best European schools at the time; Blériot and Farman aircraft, made in France, were available for the instruction of the pupils. The Great War 1914-1918, however, forced its instructors to leave and the school was closed.

At that time, both the Brazilian Army and Navy had their own air arms, the Military Aviation and the Naval Aviation. The Navy bought Curtiss F seaplanes in May 1916 to equip the latter, and in August of the same year, the Naval Aviation School was created.

The Military Aviation, however, only activated its Military Aviation School after the Great War, on 10 July 1919. Among the aircrafts used at the school, one could find the Sopwith 1A2, Bréguet 14A2, and Spad 7.

Until the beginning of the 1940s, both schools continued with their activities. 1The Brazilian Government was concerned with the air war in Europe and decided to concentrate under a single command the military aviation activities. 6Thus, on 20 January 1941, the Air Ministry was created and both the Army and Navy air arms were disbanded, their personnel and equipment forming the Brazilian Air Force. On 25 March 1941, the Aeronautics School was based at Campo dos Afonsos, and its students became known as Aeronautics Cadets from 1943 to the current days.

As early as 1942, it became clear that the Aeronautics School would need to be transferred to another place, offering better climate and little interference with the flight instruction of the future pilots. 2The town of Pirassununga was chosen among others, and, in 1952, the first buildings construction was initiated. The transfer of the School activities to Pirassununga occurred from 1960 to 1971. 3The School was redesigned as the Air Force Academy in 1969.

The motto of the Academy is the Latin expression “Macte Animo! Generose Puer, sic itur ad astra”, extracted from the poem Thebaida, by the Roman poet Tatius. It is an exhortation to the cadets, which can be translated as Courage! This is the way, oh noble youngster, to the stars.

The instruction of the Aeronautics Cadets, during the four-year-long course, has its activities centred in the words COURAGE – LOYALTY – HONOUR – DUTY – MOTHERLAND. The future officers take courses on several subjects, including Calculus, Computer Science, Mechanics, Portuguese and English, given by civilian lecturers, Air Force instructors and supervisors. The military instruction itself is given on a daily basis, and 4the Cadets are trained on different subjects, including parachuting, and sea and jungle survival.

According to the chosen specialization, the Cadet will receive specific instruction:

Pilots: Instruction on precision maneuvering, aerobatics, formation flying and by instruments, with 75 flying hours on the primary/basic training aircraft T-25 Universal, beginning on the 2nd term of the 1st year and completed in the 3rd year. Advanced training is given on T-27 Tucano aircraft, with 125 flying hours.

Administrative: Training on the scientific and technological modern foundations of economics and financial management, and logistics training.

Aeronautics Infantry: Instruction on defense and security techniques of military Aeronautics installations, anti-aircraft measures, command of troops and firefighting teams, military laws and regulations, armament usage, military service and call-up procedures.

During their leisure time, the Cadets participate on the activities of seven different clubs: Aeromodelling, Literature, Informatics, Firearms shooting, Gauchos Heritage (for those coming from the South of Brazil), Gerais Club and Sail Flying. The clubs are directed by the Cadets themselves, under supervision of Air Force officers.

The Academy also houses the Brazilian Air Force Air Demonstration Squadron – The Smoke Squadron.

Flying as the eagles do!

Adapted from http://www.rudnei.cunha.nom.br/FAB/en/afa.html

The sentence “The Military Aviation […] activated its Military Aviation School after the Great War […]” can be rewritten, with the same meaning, as _________.

a) during the Great War the Military Aviation activated its Military Aviation School.   

b) by the time the Military Aviation activated its Military Aviation School, the Great War had already finished.   

c) the Great War finished when the Military Aviation activated its Military Aviation School.   

d) the Military Aviation activated its Military Aviation School through the Great War.   

11. (Unesp 2013) Examine os anúncios para responder à questão. 

Nos anúncios, as palavras useyouneedelectricity wisely são exemplos, respectivamente, de

a) substantivo, pronome, verbo, substantivo e advérbio.

b) verbo, pronome, verbo, substantivo e advérbio.

c) substantivo, adjetivo, verbo, substantivo e adjetivo. 

d) verbo, pronome, verbo, adjetivo e adjetivo. 

e) substantivo, pronome, substantivo, adjetivo e advérbio.

 

12. (Unesp 2013) Brazil wants to count trees in the Amazon rainforest By Channtal Fleischfresser February 11, 2013 

Brazil is home to roughly 60 percent of the Amazon, about half of what remains of the world’s tropical rainforests. And now, the country has plans to count its trees. A vast undertaking, the new National Forest Inventory hopes to gain “a broad panorama of the quality and the conditions in the forest cover”, according to Brazil’s Forestry Minister Antonio Carlos Hummel

The census, set to take place over the next four yearsand registering the number, height, diameter, and species of the trees, among other dat, will scour 3,288,000 square miles, sampling 20,000 points at 20 kilometer intervals a.

The initiative, aimed to better allocate resources to the country’s forests, is part of a large-scale turnaround in Brazil’s relationship to its forests. While it once had one of the worst rates of deforestation in the world, last year only 1,797 square miles of the Amazon were destroyed – a reduction of nearly 80% compared to 2004.

(www.smartplanet.com. Adaptado.)

No trecho do primeiro parágrafo – Brazil is home to roughly 60 percent of the Amazon –, a palavra roughly equivale, emportuguês, a

a) evidentemente.

b) exatamente. 

c) aquém.

d) além de. 

e) cerca de.

13. (Mackenzie 2013) The following text refers to question(s).

DO YOU WANT TO KNOW A SECRET? John Lennon & Paul McCartney Recorded 11 February 1963

Given away simultaneously to fellow Brian Epstein protégé Billy J.Kramer (for a hit single), and to George Harrinson (for this LP), “Do You Want To Know A Secret?” was a Lennon composition – inspired by a line he remembered from a Disney song that his mother used to sing. “I thought it would be a good vehicle for George because it only had three notes and he wasn’t the best singer in the world,” Lennon explained ___(I)___ in later years.

The word that properly fills in blank (I) in the text is

a) charitable. 

b) chariting. 

c) charitingly. 

d) charitably. 

e) charitily.

14. (Unifesp 2012) Longevity: Habits May Extend Life Only So Much

By Nicholas Bakalar August 8, 2011

The eating, drinking and exercise habits of extremely old but healthy people differ little from those of the rest of us, a new study has found. Gerontologists at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine recruited 477 Ashkenazi Jews ages 95 to 112 who were living independently. The researchers took blood samples, did physical examinations and obtained detailed personal and medical histories from each participant. Then they compared them with 1,374 non-Hispanic white adults, ages 65 to 74, from the general population. For both men and women, consumption of alcohol, amount of physical activity and the percentage of people on low-calorie or low-salt diets were almost identical in the two groups.

Long-lived men were less likely to be obese than their younger counterparts, although no less likely to be overweight. The oldest women were more likely to be overweight and less likely to be obese. More men among the oldest were nonsmokers, but smoking habits were not significantly different among the women.

____1_____ that it all depends on genes, and we might as well eat, drink and be merry? No, according to the senior author, Dr. Nir Barzilai, director of the Institute for Aging Research at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “For most of us who ___2____ genes for longevity,” he said, “if you follow the healthy lifestyle the medical community has put forth, you are ____3_____ to live past 80.”

The study was published online last week in The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

(www.nytimes.com. Adaptado.) 

Assinale a alternativa que completa corretamente a lacuna 3 do texto.

a) less likely

b) can’t like 

c) much more likely 

d) even more like 

e) least probable

15. (Ita 2012) 2045: The Year Man Becomes Immortal

By Lev Grossman

(…), Kurzweil believes that we’re approaching a moment when computers will become intelligent, and not just intelligent but more intelligent than humans. When that happens, humanity – our bodies, our minds, our civilization – will be completely and irreversibly transformed. He believes that this moment is not only inevitable but imminent. According to his calculations, the end of human civilization as we know it is about 35 years away.

Computers are getting faster. Everybody knows that. Also, computers are getting faster faster – that is, the rate at which they’re getting faster is increasing.

True? True.

So if computers are getting so much faster, so incredibly fast, there might conceivably come a moment when they are capable of something comparable to human intelligence. Artificial intelligence. All that horsepower could be put in the service of emulating whatever it is our brains are doing when they create consciousness – not just doing arithmetic very quickly or composing piano music but also driving cars, writing books, making ethical decisions, appreciating fancy paintings, making witty observations at cocktail parties.

If you can swallow that idea, and Kurzweil and a lot of other very smart people can, then all bets are off. 1From that point on, there’s no reason to think computers would stop getting more powerful. 2They would keep on developing until they were far more intelligent than we are. Their rate of development would also continue to increase, because they would take over their own development from their slower-thinking human creators. Imagine a computer scientist that was itself a super-intelligent computer. It would work incredibility quickly. It could draw on huge amounts of data effortlessly. It wouldn’t even take breaks to play Farmville.(…)

http://www.time.com/printout/0,8816,2048138,00.html. Acesso em 07/04/2011. Adaptado. 

Na sentença They would keep on developing until they were far more intelligent than we are (ref. 2), o vocábulo grifado poderia ser substituído por

a) far away.

b) incredible. 

c) much. 

d) distant. 

e) many.















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