1. (Uerj 2014)  

Wiser and 4older 

Sometimes the world of science and medicine produces something that can only be described as 1unalloyed good news. We are used to stories about pollution scares and increases in the rates of cancer, but bubbling beneath is the stark reality that we live at a time when humans are healthier and 5live longer than at any time in our history.

The Office for National Statistics figures, recently released, make heartening if surprising reading. They show that 2most men are surviving until the age of 85, while women are living four years longer. Furthermore, we can expect these figures to increase as the century progresses. What’s driving this extraordinary increase in human 6longevity?

The increase has been driven by a number of advances. Firstly, the huge reduction in neonatal and infant deaths. These days, nearly all babies born in a prosperous advanced nation can expect to survive into adulthood. Over half the couples in the world are having fewer than two children each. This is partly because almost everywhere infant mortality is falling, globally faster today than at any time in human history.

Sanitation, vaccination and better diets have increased lifespans once we survive infancy, but they cannot wholly explain why people are living into their eighties and beyond. A cut in physical stress and a huge reduction in exposure to toxic and carcinogenic substances in the environment may explain much of the increase. In the 1950s, thousands died or became very ill during the London smogs. That threat, along with numerous other environmental containments, has gone. We have also begun to stop smoking and we are drinking less, too.

Finally, life is much safer than it used to be. As psychologist Steven Pinker shows in his book, The better angels of our nature, the history of all societies has shown an amazing decline in violence over the past century. We are ten times less likely to be murdered today than we were two hundred years ago, and three times less likely to be killed on the roads than we were in the 1960s.

So, can the increase in longevity continue? According to gerontologists, there is no clear answer. Currently the maximum human lifespan is 122 years, attained by the French woman Jeanne Calment who died in 1997. Significantly, no one has come close to her astonishing record. Instead, more and more of us are dodging the bullets of middle age and living to our personal genetic potential. So how long is the natural human lifespan? The answer seems to be that, in a world where infectious diseases are kept at bay and where we are safe from predators and starvation, and provided we keep our lifestyles in check, 3most people should reach 80 or 90.

Something very big is going on, wrote Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations secretary general. He warned that “the social and economic implications of this phenomenon are profound, extending far beyond the individual 7older person and the immediate family, touching broader society and the global community in unprecedented ways”. What the figures show more than anything is that we need a rapid and radical rethink of how we treat 8the elderly among us, as they will soon be the majority. 


most people should reach 80 or 90. (ref. 3)

The function of should in the fragment above is to:

a) give advice  
b) clear doubt  
c) express possibility  
d) impose obligation  

2. (Udesc 2014)  Answer the question(s), according to text. 

Archaeologists use drones to study Peru's ruins 

To get a bird's-eye view of ancient sites, archaeologists often turn to planes, helicopters and even hot air balloons. But today researchers have access to more agile and less expensive technology to map, explore and protect archaeological treasures: tiny airborne drones.

In Peru – the home of Machu Picchu and other amazing ruins – the government is planning to purchase several drones to 5quickly and cheaply conduct archaeological surveys in areas targeted for building or development, according to Reuters.

Archaeologists working in the country have already been using small flying robots to study 4ancient sites, including the colonial Andean town Machu Llacta, and the San José de Moro burial grounds, which contain the tombs of Moche priestesses. Some researchers have even built their own drones for less than $ 2,000, Reuters reported.

"It's like having a scalpel instead of a club," Jeffrey Quilter, an archaeologist at Harvard University, told the news agency. "You can control it to a very fine degree. You can go up 3 meters and photograph a room, 300 meters and photograph a 3site, or you can go up 3,000 meters and photograph the entire valley."

6Cheap and effective drones could be a boon for Peru's culture ministry, which has a modest budget and is tasked with protecting more than 13,000 archaeological sites that are threatened by looters, squatters and illegal mining, according to Reuters.

Elsewhere robots have 1enabled archaeological discovery. A remote-controlled robot the size of a 2lawn mower recently found burial chambers inside the Temple of the Feathered Serpent, an ancient pyramid in Mexico. And in Russia, researchers used a miniature airborne drone to capture images that could be used to create a 3-D model of an ancient burial mound. 

Accessed on: 26/08/2013. 
Some of the English grammar points which are present in ref. 6 are: 

a) adverb, present simple, present perfect.    
b) adjective, modal, relative pronoun.    
c) adjectives, passive voice, simple past.    
d) future perfect, possessive case, simple present.    
e) present perfect, modals, simple past.   

3. (Uemg 2014)  

The Man Who Sold the Eiffel Tower

Paris, 1925. World War I had finished and the city was full of people with cash looking for business opportunities. Victor Lustig was reading the newspaper one day and found an article about the Eiffel Tower. It said the tower was being neglected because it was too expensive to maintain. Lustig a great ‘business opportunity’ – he would sell the Eiffel Tower!

Lustig wrote to six important businessmen in the city and invited them to a secret meeting in a well-known Paris hotel. He said he was a government official and he told them that he wanted to talk about a business deal. All six of the businessmen came to the meeting.

At the meeting, Lustig told them that the city wanted to sell the Eiffel Tower for scrap metal and that he had been asked to find a buyer. He said that the deal was secret because it would not be popular with the public. The businessmen believed him, perhaps the Eiffel Tower was never planned to be permanent. It had been built as part of the 1889 Paris Expo, and the original plan had been to remove it in 1909.

Lustig rented a limousine and took the men to visit the tower. After the tour, he said that if they were interested, they should contact him the next day. Lustig told them he would give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer. One of the dealers, Andre Poisson, was very interested, but he was also worried. Why was Lustig in such a hurry?

The two men had a meeting, and Lustig confessed that he wasn’t looking for the highest offer. He said he would give the contract to anybody – for a price. Poisson understood: Lustig wanted a little extra money “under the table” for himself. This was Lustig’s cleverest lie, because now Poisson believed him completely.

Lustig sold Poisson a false contract for the Eiffel Tower – and on top of that, Poisson paid him a little extra money “under the table”. Lustig put all the money in a suitcase and took the first train to Vienna. Poisson never told the police what had happened – he was too embarrassed. After a month, Lustig returned to Paris and tried to sell the Eiffel Tower again, but this time somebody told the police and he had to escape to America. There, he continued his criminal career and finished his days in the famous Alcatraz prison. 

(Oxford UP 2009 - English Result, p.62. Adapted.)

Read the reported sentence below, from the text.
Lustig told them he would give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer.Which of the alternatives below corresponds to Lustig’s direct speech?  

a) “I will give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer”.    
b) “I would give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer”.    
c) “I shall give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer”.    
d) “I could give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer”.  

4. (Pucrs 2014)  

Eight rules for walks in the countryPosted by Tom Cox 

“It’s quite an up and down kind of walk,” said my friend Emma. “Oh,” added Emma, “and it gets a bit blowy up there, so I’d leave your credit card back here if I were you.” I gave her a searching look, wondering how a credit card might relate to a strong wind. “I took mine up there the other week and it blew out of my hand into the sea,” she clarified. “I had to order a new one.”

I fell in love with walking because it lifted my spirit and took me to parts of my local area that I would never have _________ otherwise, but also because there was something brilliantly ridiculous about the idea of _________ yourself, 1on a whim, alone, in a bit of countryside you’d never _________ before, with no real goal apart from putting one foot in front of the other.

I’ve never really dressed in any walking-specific clothing or taken any special supplies out with me, but I do think there are a few things I’ve learned about “how to walk” in gentle terrain that might help others. I have compiled some of the main ones: always be assertive in saying “Hello!” to fellow walkers, unless in a built-up area; learn to fold your map properly; show strange dogs and cows who is boss; don’t be afraid of dictaphones*; try not to have a beard, but if you do have a beard, have a dog as well; try to avoid headwear, unless strictly necessary; choose an apt soundtrack for your walk; watch out for fookwits and loonies!

This last one doesn’t apply specifically to country walks. It’s just something that my dad tells me every time I see him, and it’s worked fairly well as a general rule for life over the years, so it probably works for walking as well. 

*voice recorders 

Adapted from http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2013/sep/11/eight-rules-country-walks.

To solve question, read paragraph 3 and select the correct words to complete the gaps.
_________ you _________ in a built-up area, you _________ greet the fellow walkers. 

According to the idea in the text, the correct words to fill in the gaps are, respectively,

a) Unless aren’t mustn’t  
b) Unless are should  
c) If are must  
d) If are should  
e) If aren’t shouldn’t    

5. (Ufsc 2013)  Read the text and answer. 
Introducing Cordel

Brazil's "literatura de cordel" is a kind of folk-popular poetry ______ involves both the oral and written traditions and is very popular in northeastern Brazil. After a hiatus of ______ years when its production fell ______ because of economic and social change in Brazil, it is ______ a revival due primarily to the personal computer and printer which allow poets to ______ the high cost of typographies and printing shops. In addition, there is a large ______ of "cordel" type poetry on the internet. 

Adapted from: <http://www.currancordelconnection.com/en/what-is-cordel>. Accessed on August 17th, 2012.

Choose the CORRECT proposition(s) to complete the text above.

01) what – many – chiefly – transforming – refuse – occurrence  
02) which – some – significantly – experiencing – avoid – presence  
04) there – various – largely – renovating – decline – attendance  
08) who – few – extensively – increasing – change – existence  
16) that – several – considerably – undergoing – escape – incidence     

6. (Ufsj 2013)  Young Nina and her grandmother are having a conversation:

"Grandma, how long have you and Grandpa been married?", asked Nina.
1"We've been married for fifty years", Grandma replied.
"That is so wonderful", exclaimed Nina. "And I bet in all that time, you never once thought about divorce, right?"
"Right Nina. Divorce, never. Murder, lots of times.”

Adapted from http://www.sarasotawedding.com/jokes/divorce_jokes.html
Access on September 28th, 2012.

In the joke, the sentence “We've been married for fifty years" (ref. 1) means that Nina's grandparents

a) lived together for fifty years. 
b) were married for fifty years.  
c) got married fifty years ago.  
d) were married for a long time.     

7. (Upe 2013) 

Sammy Sosa has been playing for the Chicago Cubs, a professional baseball team located in Chicago, ……(I)…… 1993. In 1998, he and McGwire ………………(II)……………… the record for the most home runs in a single season. He has hit more than 50 home runs in four seasons in a row.

When Sammy was a child, his family ……………(III)……………………… . They couldn’t buy him a baseball bat, so he made one from a tree branch. Now the Sammy Sosa Foundation raises money for poor children in Dominican Republic and Chicago. Sammy is married and has four children. 

STEMPLESKI, S., MORGAN, J., DOUGLAS, Nancy. World Link: developing English fluency - book 3B. Thomson Heinle: Boston, 2010. (Adaptado)

home run: tacada de beisebol que permite que o jogador (na posição de batedor) percorra todas as bases e faça o ponto. 

Considerando a gramática e o contexto, a sequência cujas palavras completam CORRETAMENTE as lacunas I, II e III está na alternativa

a) in – broken – were very poor  
b) for – reach – wasn’t very poor  
c) in – break down – was wealthy  
d) since – have broken – were careful  
e) since – broke – was very poor    

8. (Ita 2013)  Leia o anúncio abaixo e assinale a opção que substitui corretamente a afirmação “so should your airline”. 

a) Your airline should offer its clients a wider range of businesses.
b) Business should cross borders and also should your airline.  
c) Your airline should invest more in business worldwide.  
d) Business crosses borders and your airline should, too.  
e) Your airline should keep on doing business abroad so as to improve its results.   


O espaço virtual do estudante!

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