Adjetivo - Inglês - Questões de Vestibulares

1. (Unesp 2017) Question: Is there anything I can do to train my body to need less sleep?
Karen Weintraub. June 17, 2016
Many people think they can teach themselves to need less sleep, but they’re wrong, said Dr. Sigrid Veasey, a professor at the Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology at the University of Pennsylvania’s Perelman School of Medicine. We might feel that we’re getting by fine on less sleep, but we’re deluding ourselves, Dr. Veasey said, largely because lack of sleep skews our self-awareness. “The more you deprive yourself of sleep over long periods of time, the less accurate you are of judging your own sleep perception,” she said.
Multiple studies have shown that people don’t functionally adapt to less sleep than their bodies need. There is a range of normal sleep times, with most healthy adults naturally needing seven to nine hours of sleep per night, according to the National Sleep Foundation. Those over 65 need about seven to eight hours, on average, while teenagers need eight to 10 hours, and school-age children nine to 11 hours. People’s performance continues to be poor while they are sleep deprived, Dr. Veasey said.
Health issues like pain, sleep apnea or autoimmune disease can increase people’s need for sleep, said Andrea Meredith, a neuroscientist at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. A misalignment of the clock that governs our sleep-wake cycle can also drive up the need for sleep, Dr. Meredith said. The brain’s clock can get misaligned by being stimulated at the wrong time of day, she said, such as from caffeine in the afternoon or evening, digital screen use too close to bedtime, or even exercise at a time of day when the body wants to be winding down. 
(http://well.blogs.nytimes.com. Adaptado.)

No trecho do primeiro parágrafo “The more you deprive yourself of sleep over long periods of time, the less accurate you are of judging your own sleep perception”, os termos em destaque indicam
a) finalidade.   
b) preferência.   
c) proporcionalidade.   
d) exclusão.   
e) substituição.   

2. (Acafe 2017) Answer the question based on the text below.

The Brazilian government has ratified its participation in the Paris agreement on climate change, a significant step by Latin America’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases that could spur other countries to follow suit.
With a landmass larger than the continental US, Brazil emits about 2,5% of the world’s carbon dioxide and other polluting gases, according to United Nations data.
“Our government is concerned about the future,” said President Michel Temer during a signing ceremony in Brasilia. “Everything we do today is not aimed at tomorrow, but rather at a future that preserves the living conditions of Brazilians.”
Temer said Brazil’s ratification would be presented formally to the UN later this month.
The Paris agreement will enter into force once 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions have formally joined it. Climate experts say that could happen later this year.
Countries set their own targets for reducing emissions. The targets are not legally binding, but nations must update them every five years. Using 2005 levels as the baseline, Brazil committed to cutting emissions 37% by 2025 and an “intended reduction” of 43% by 2030.
In the last decade, Brazil has achieved significant emissions cuts thanks to efforts to reduce deforestation in the Amazon and increase in the use of energy from hydropower and other renewable sources including wind, solar and biomass.
The Paris accord got a boost earlier this month when the US president, Barack Obama, and China’s President, Xi Jinping, sealed their nations’ participation.
“Brazil is now the next major country to move forward. It will add even greater momentum,” said David Waskow, director of the International Climate Initiative at the Washington, DC-based think tank the World Resources Institute. 
Source: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/sep/13/brazil-ratifies-paris-agreement-with-pledge-to-sharplyreduce-emissions.

From the words in bold below, which is not an adjective in the text:
a) Renewable sources (7th paragraph)   
b) Polluting gases (2nd paragraph)   
c) Significant emissions (7th paragraph)   
d) Legally binding (6th paragraph)   
  
3. (Esc. Naval 2016) Which is the correct way to complete the paragraph below?

No language is easy to learn well, though languages which are related to our first language are __________. Learning a completely different writing system is a huge challenge, but that does not necessarily make a language __________ another. In the end, it is impossible to say that there is one language that is __________ language in the world.
(Adapted from www.usingenglish.com)
a) easier – more difficult – harder    
b) the easiest – more difficult – harder   
c) as easy as – the most difficult – the hardest   
d) easier – more difficult than –  the hardest   
e) the easiest – more difficult than – the harder   

4. (Uemg 2017) How a young student’s innovative idea hopes to boost response times for EMTs

By Woody Brown on June 1, 2015

            Drones have been at the forefront of the national conversation for years now. As the components needed to create them grow smaller and more affordable, many companies and organizations have started exploring the potential that drones could have to improve our daily lives. Whether by delivering a product with unprecedented speed or taking photographs and video from new heights, drones have many capabilities, most of which we have yet to discover. One young man, however, has envisioned a new way to use drones that could save thousands of lives.
            One of the greatest obstacles facing first responders and emergency medical technicians [EMTs] when it comes to the difficult business of saving lives is time. Think of your daily commute: people in the United States spend an average of 25.5 minutes traveling one-way to work every day. In bumperto-bumper traffic, blaring sirens and flashing lights are often not enough to clear a fast path for an ambulance to reach someone in need. During cardiac arrest, there are, at most, a few minutes to save a person’s life. After that, the mortality rate rises steeply. With stakes this high, every second counts.
            Alec Momont, a graduate student in engineering at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, recognized this problem and saw a way to significantly reduce deaths that result from delayed emergency care. What if ambulances could fly? Or rather, what if we could make a drone that functioned like a stripped-down, lightweight automatic external defibrillator [AED]? AEDs, which can be found in schools, sports arenas and many government buildings, are significantly more effective than cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] at preventing fatalities resulting from cardiac arrest. CPR can be helpful, but an AED is better, and very few people
have AEDs in their cars or homes.
            As his master’s degree project, Momont built a prototype of this lifesaving drone. It contained an AED, a microphone and speakers. The average travel time, according to him, could be cut by 90 percent. Here’s how it works: In the event of cardiac arrest, a paramedic would respond to a call by flying the drone at a speed of 60 mph to the scene of the emergency. The paramedic would then give instructions to someone near the victim, who would position the AED. Once in place, the AED would operate automatically. The paramedic would be able to see through the camera whether or not the pads on the AED have been correctly positioned, and how the victim responds.
            A dramatized video released by Momont’s university demonstrates all of this functionality. In it, a young woman calls emergency services in a panic because her father has had a heart attack. A calm-voiced EMT answers and guides her through the surprisingly simple process of finding and using the drone. Fewer than two minutes after she makes the call, her father sits up and hugs her.
            The ambulance drone can increase the chances of surviving cardiac arrest from eight percent to 80 percent, Momont says in the video. The drone’s ability to travel as the crow flies frees it from infrastructural limitations that currently impede road-bound ambulances. “Using advanced production techniques such as 3D printed microstructures and carbon fiber frame construction, we were able to achieve a very lightweight design,” Momont says. “The result is an integrated solution that is clear in its orientation and friendly in appearance.”
            Momont’s aim is to rapidly expand the existing framework of emergency services by constructing many of these drones over the next five years. Expenses are low: each drone is relatively cheap to make, about $18,600. By comparison, a typical ambulance costs more than $100,000, and a ride in one usually costs more than $1,000.
            The ambulance drones can even fly autonomously (though legislation in many countries does not permit this yet). Several emergency service providers have already expressed interest. If the technology continues to receive financial support from other parties in the healthcare industry, Momont’s dream could very easily become a reality.
            We live in a world where drones have, so far, been used mostly in armed conflict. Momont, however, has a different vision. In the near future that he describes, tens of thousands of needless deaths will be prevented with his ingenious invention. That is certainly welcome news, especially in the United States, which deals with skyrocketing numbers of heart-related ailments and disabilities. “Let’s use drones for a good purpose,” Momont says. “Let us use drones to save lives.” 
Adapted from: <http://www.verizonwireless.com/news/article/2015/05/ambulance-dronescould- save-thousands-of-lives.html>. Access on: 03 Oct. 2016.

The word which is used as a modifier in the correspondent paragraphs is
a) taking (paragraph 1).   
b) blaring (paragraph 2).   
c) finding (paragraph 5).   
d) exploring (paragraph 1).   
  
5. (Uemg 2017) The word that functions as an adjective in the text is
a) steeply (paragraph 2).   
b) friendly (paragraph 6).   
c) significantly (paragraph 3).   
d) autonomously (paragraph 8).   

6. (Epcar (Afa) 2016) THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FRIENDS AND TYPES OF FRIENDSHIP

Everyone has at least one best friend, some maybe even more. There are also those people who are just friends and also arch-enemies. People may think that just because they are your friends it means that they are your best friend. The thing is, even though they are your friend, the relationship between a best friend and a friend is different. Either way regardless of archenemies, friends or best friends, there are not many ways to compare any of these different types of friends, but you can easily contrast them from one another.
Arch-enemies often know more about each other than two friends. In a comparison of personal relationships, 1friendship is considered to be closer than association, although a wide range of degrees of intimacy exists in friendships, arch-enemies, and associations. Friendship and association can be thought of as spanning across the same continuum. 2The study of friendship is included in the fields of sociology, social psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and zoology. Even animals have familiars! Various academic theories of friendship have been proposed, among which are social exchange theory, equity theory, relational dialectics, and attachment styles. 3In Russia, one typically bestows very few people the status of “friend”.
These friendships, however, make up in intensity what they lack in number. Friends are entitled to call each other by their first names alone, and to use diminutives. A customary example of polite behavior is addressing "acquaintances" by full first name plus their patronymic. These could include relationships which elsewhere would be qualified as real friendships, such as workplace relationships of long standing, or neighbors with whom one shares an occasional meal or a social drink with.
Also in the Middle East and Central Asia, male friendships, while less restricted than in Russia, tend to be reserved and respectable in nature. They may use nicknames and diminutive forms of their first names. In countries like India, it is believed in some parts that friendship is a form of respect, not born out of fear or superiority. Friends are people who are equal in most standards, but still respect each other regardless of their attributes or shortcomings. Most of the countries previously mentioned (Russia, Asia, and even the Middle East) and even our own nation are suffering a decline in genuine friendships.
According to a study documented in the June 2006 issue of the Journal American Sociological Review, Americans are thought to be suffering a loss in the quality and quantity of close friendships since at least 1985. The study’s results state that twenty-five percent of 4Americans have no close confidants, and the average total number of confidants per citizen has dropped from four to two. According to the study, 5Americans' dependence on family as a safety net went up from fifty-seven percent to eighty percent; Americans dependence on a partner or spouse went up from five percent to nine percent.
Recent studies have found a link between fewer friendships, especially in quality, and psychological and physiological regression. In the sequence of the emotional development of the individual, friendships come after parental bonding and before the pair bonding engaged in at the approach of maturity. In the intervening period between the end of early childhood and the onset of full adulthood, friendships are often the most important relationships in the emotional life of the adolescent, and are often more intense than relationships experienced later in life.
6Unfortunately, making friends seems to trouble many of people. Having no friends can be emotionally damaging for all ages, from young children to full grown adults. A study performed by researchers from Purdue University found that post-secondary-education friendships, college and university last longer than the friendships before it. Children with Asperger syndrome and autism usually have some difficulty forming friendships. 7Socially crippling conditions like these are just one way that the social world is so difficult to thrive in. 8This does not mean that they are not able to form friendships, however. With time, moderation and proper instruction, they are able to form friendships after realizing their own strengths and weaknesses.
9There is a number of theories that attempt to explain the link, including that; Good friends encourage their friends to lead more healthy lifestyles; 10Good friends encourage their friends to seek help and access services, when needed; 11Good friends enhance their friend’s 12coping skills in dealing with illness and other health problems; and/or Good friends actually affect physiological pathways that are protective of health. Regardless of what we think, we can clearly see that there are some ways that friends, best friends and archenemies are the same, but in the end they are clearly more different. 13Nonetheless we all have every single type in our lives. 
(Adapted from: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/philosophy/therelationship- between-friends-and-types-of-friendship-philosophyessay. php)

Choose the option which shows the same kind of comparison in the underlined adjective in “friendship is considered to be closer than association” (reference 1).
a) Americans have no best friends.   
b) While less restricted in Russia.   
c) Friendships are often more intense than relationship.   
d) Everyone has at least one best friend.   

7. (Ita 2014) 

2Harvard conducted one of the longest and most comprehensive studies of human development — the 75 year old Grant Study — that’s reached some fascinating conclusions regarding the recipe for leading a happy life. The sample group was comprised of healthy male Harvard college students who, over the course of their lifetime, agreed to meet with an array of scientists and researchers who measured their psychological, physical and anthropological traits. 1Though all identities are confidential, it was recently discovered that John F. Kennedy was a sample participant. Following these men through times of war, their careers, parenthood and old age, the Grant Study has amassed an exorbitant amount of data that deeply reflects the human condition. What can be concluded from seven decades of data? It is quite simple actually; warm relationships between parents, spouses, children and friends have the greatest impact on your health and happiness in old age. The study found that 93 percent of the sample group who were thriving at age 65, had a close relationship with a sibling when they were younger. As George Vaillant, the lead director of the study states, it can all be boiled down into five simple words: “Happiness is love. Full stop.” (Business Insider.)
http://www.goodnet.org/articles/1055 (acesso em 10/06/2013).

Substituindo os adjetivos long e comprehensive, respectivamente, por easy e rich na oração “Harvard conducted one of the longest and most comprehensive studies of human development” (ref. 2), teremos:

a) the most easy - the richest    
b) the easiest - the most rich  
c) the more easy - the richer    
d) the easiest - the richest  
e) the most easy - the most rich   

8. (Ita 2014) Is this what really goes on in the staff room?
 
 Em “the more I learn, the less clear anything gets”, mantém-se o mesmo sentido em:

a) more learning, less obscurity.  
b) more learning, more obscurity.  
c) less learning, more obscurity.    
d) less learning, less doubts.  
e) more doubts, more obscurity.  

9. (Uneb 2014) Brazil Science Without Borders 

The Brazilian 1government’s new Science Without Borders Program will provide scholarships to undergraduate students from Brazil 2for one year of study at colleges and universities in the United States. Scholarships will be 3given primarily to students in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Students in the program will return to Brazil to complete their degrees.

Undergraduate students from Brazil may apply for the Science Without Borders Program scholarship beginning August 31, 2011.

This program, administered by IIE, is part of the Brazilian government’s larger initiative to 4grant 100,000 scholarships for the 5best students from Brazil to study abroad at the world’s best universities. 

“BRAZIL Science Without Borders”.Disponível em: <http://educationusacienciassemfronteiras.org/scier>. Acesso em: 12 out. 2013. 

Considering language use in the text, it’s correct to say:
a) The ’s in “government’s” (ref. 1) is the contraction of is.  
b) The preposition “for” (ref. 2) introduces the start of a period of time.  
c) The verb form “given’ (ref. 3) is in the Simple Past tense.  
d) The verb “grant” (ref. 4) is the same as prohibit.  
e) The adjective “best” (ref. 5) is the superlative of good.    

10. (Uemg 2014)  

The Man Who Sold the Eiffel Tower 


Paris, 1925. World War I had finished and the city was full of people with cash looking for business opportunities. Victor Lustig was reading the newspaper one day and found an article about the Eiffel Tower. It said the tower was being neglected because it was too expensive to maintain. Lustig a great ‘business opportunity’ – he would sell the Eiffel Tower!

Lustig wrote to six important businessmen in the city and invited them to a secret meeting in a well-known Paris hotel. He said he was a government official and he told them that he wanted to talk about a business deal. All six of the businessmen came to the meeting.

At the meeting, Lustig told them that the city wanted to sell the Eiffel Tower for scrap metal and that he had been asked to find a buyer. He said that the deal was secret because it would not be popular with the public. The businessmen believed him, perhaps the Eiffel Tower was never planned to be permanent. It had been built as part of the 1889 Paris Expo, and the original plan had been to remove it in 1909.

Lustig rented a limousine and took the men to visit the tower. After the tour, he said that if they were interested, they should contact him the next day. Lustig told them he would give the tower contract to the person with the highest offer. One of the dealers, Andre Poisson, was very interested, but he was also worried. Why was Lustig in such a hurry?

The two men had a meeting, and Lustig confessed that he wasn’t looking for the highest offer. He said he would give the contract to anybody – for a price. Poisson understood: Lustig wanted a little extra money “under the table” for himself. This was Lustig’s cleverest lie, because now Poisson believed him completely.

Lustig sold Poisson a false contract for the Eiffel Tower – and on top of that, Poisson paid him a little extra money “under the table”. Lustig put all the money in a suitcase and took the first train to Vienna. Poisson never told the police what had happened – he was too embarrassed. After a month, Lustig returned to Paris and tried to sell the Eiffel Tower again, but this time somebody told the police and he had to escape to America. There, he continued his criminal career and finished his days in the famous Alcatraz prison.
(Oxford UP 2009 - English Result, p.62. Adapted.) 

In the sentence “The two men had a meeting, and Lustig confessed that he wasn’t looking for the highest offer”, the expression the highestis a superlative. 

Read the following adjectives:
cheap – tall – good – smart 

Which of the sequences below has the correct superlative form of the adjectives above?  

a) the cheapest - the tallest - the goodest - the smartiest    
b) the cheapiest - the tallest - the best - the smartest    
c) the cheapest - the talliest - the goodest - the smartiest    
d) the cheapest - the tallest - the best - the smartest    

11. (Upe 2013)  


[…] Oh the cell phone! Everyone knows how important personal cell phones have become to teens. 3In fact, TeenFrontier.com reports that 25% of cell phone 4revenues come from teens. 2As important as your cell phone is, summer job etiquette demands that teenagers take steps to curb the use of personal cell phones in the workspace. To be considered a professional working teen at a summer job, 1keep cell phones off, avoid texting and keep earpieces out of sight while working. […]
DIAS, Reinildes; JUCÁ, Leina; FARIA, Raquel. Prime: inglês para o ensino médio. São Paulo: Macmillan, 2010. (Adaptado.) 

Em relação aos recursos linguísticos utilizados no texto, pode-se afirmar que 

I. Keep... off (ref. 1) é um phrasal verb e significa ‘manter distância’.
II. Em “As important as your cell fone is...” (ref. 2), há uma comparação de superioridade implícita.
III. In fact (ref. 3) é um marcador do discurso e indica uma reformulação.
IV. O vocábulo revenues (ref. 4) é um termo cognato.
V. O trecho “keep cell phones off, avoid texting and keep earpieces out of sight while working.” (ref. 1) expressa um conselho.

Estão CORRETAS

a) I, III e V.  
b) I e III.  
c) I, II e V.  
d) III e IV.  
e) I e V.   

12. (Upe 2012) 

Trying to predict what will happen as our planet warms up is not easy. We know that ice at the poles is melting and this is making sea levels rise. Warmer temperatures are likely to change other aspects of the weather. Some countries, such as those in North Africa, may become ____I___ , while other areas, such as Northern Europe, may become ________II__________. There will probably be more storms, droughts, and flooding.
(Adaptado de Impact of climate change. In: The New Children’s Encyclopedia. London: 2009. p. 78)


 As lacunas I e II no texto acima podem ser completadas, de forma correta e na mesma sequência, pela opção


a) more hotter and drier — more colder and wetter  
b) as hotter and drier — as colder and wetter  
c) hotter and drier — colder and wetter  
d) most hotter and dry — most colder and wet  
e) the hotter and drier — the colder and wetter   
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